Direct dating in archaeology

Organic materials, such as wood and bone, can easily be dated using radiocarbon techniques, but they aren't always available or reliable.

Electron spin resonance (ESR) has been used for absolute dating of archaeological materials such as quartz, flints, carbonate crystals, and fossil remains for nearly 50 years.In archaeological terminology, there are two categories of dating methods: absolute and relative.Absolute dating utilizes one or more of a variety of chronometric techniques to produce a computed numerical age, typically with a standard error.To progress, it is essential to apply the second type, or relative, dating.The term refers to the fact that an approximate date can be inferred by comparison with something else of known age.